Aside from the period of the empire (which did not last long beyond the reign of Shutruk-Nakhkunte’s youngest son), the region was a federation of tribes ruled, at different times and with varying authority, by the cities of Awan/Anshan, Shimashki, and Susa. It is believed that the ziggurat was built in two stages. Antiquity of Shush dates back to 7000 years B.C. Ancient History Encyclopedia. (2020, August 28). 99, iss. It is one of the ziggurats outside Mesopotamia. How the indigenous Elamite religion was practiced during the Proto-Elamite Period is unknown and, even if the Elamite linear script were deciphered, there is no guarantee it would shed any light on this aspect of Elamite culture. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Choga Zanbil was built around 1250 BCE by the king Untash-Napirisha to honor the great god Inshushinak. Kiririsha – Wife and consort of both Insushinak and Humban, mother of the gods… Mark, published on 28 August 2020 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Visitors from around the world regularly came to the site until the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 CE when tourism worldwide was interrupted. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. 1, pp. 41, Geuthner, 1967, Edith Porada, Tchoga Zanbil (Dur-Untash). The complex was sacked by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (r. 668-627 BCE) when he invaded Elam in 647-646 BCE but, contrary to his boasts and the claims of later historians, he did not destroy the site. Work was continued at the site afterwards by Iranian and international teams working to stabilize and preserve the ziggurat and surrounding walls. In the outer area are royal palaces, a funerary palace containing five subterranean royal tombs. The middle area holds eleven temples for lesser gods. IranianTours, . Chogha Zanbil began as a ziggurat and surrounding courtyard dedicated to Insushinak. Mark, Joshua J. Books Near the temples of Kiririsha and Hishmitik-Ruhuratir, kilns were found that were probably used for the production of baked bricks and decorative materials. The ziggurat stands at the site of the ancient city of Elam, in today’s Khuzestan province in southwest Iran. As noted, Elam’s population was diverse, held together by a common language but apparently differing in customs and religious beliefs or, at least, which gods of the Elamite-Mesopotamian pantheon they chose to elevate. Although only one skeleton was found in this tomb, it seems to have been created to house the remains of the entire royal family. Construction was still underway when Untash-Napirisha died (cause unknown), and work was abandoned. There was thus an increased attention to Elamite traditions. The focus of the religion seems to have been the afterlife. Napirisha – Lord of the Earth and the people. 24 Nov 2020. It is also known as Dur-Untash (Fortress/City/Town of Untash), Tchogha Zanbil, and Al Untash Napirisha (“Place of Untash Napirisha”) and features the largest ziggurat in the world outside of Mesopotamia and the best preserved. Era of the Igihalkid Dynasty of the Middle, Expedition Magazine: An Elamite Inscribed Brick by Philip Jones, Following Hadrian photography by Carole Raddato, Tchogha Zanbil: UNESCO World Heritage Site, ČOḠĀ ZANBĪL – Encyclopaedia Iranica by Elizabeth Carter, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, Proto-Elamite Period (c. 3200 - c. 2700 BCE), Old Elamite Period (c. 2700 - c. 1600 BCE), Middle Elamite Period (c. 1500 - c. 1100 BCE), Neo-Elamite Period (c. 1100 - c. 539 BCE), Igihalkid Dynasty (c. 1400 - c. 1200 BCE), Napirisha – Lord of the Earth and the people, Insushinak – Lord of Susa, judge of the dead, protector of the weak, Humban – Lord of Anshan, guardian of the king (and royal family), sky god, Kiririsha – Wife and consort of both Insushinak and Humban, mother of the gods, a mother goddess, Pinikir – Queen of heaven, goddess of the sky, Ismekarab – Goddess of the underworld, hearer/protector of oaths, Lamagal – (also given as Lakamar) Goddess of the dead and judge of souls. In 1979 CE Chogha Zanbil was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site and preservation efforts continue even with the social turmoil of the region. From inscriptions, it is clear that there was a concept of judgment after death and the two most prominent judges were Insushinak and Lamagal. The video and its description text are provided by Youtube. Two large buildings, designated “palaces” by the original excavators, were located in the so-called “royal quarter” which had subterranean chambers designed as burial vaults. May the work which I created, as an offering, be agreeable to Insushinak! (Jones, 1). The complex was never completed as is made clear by mud bricks still stacked for use in construction & unfinished temples at the site. It is not completely clear, but it seems Insushinak was merciful while Lamagal was harsh (one of her epithets was “She Who is Without Mercy”), and they would therefore balance each other and render a fair, impartial judgment. Chogha Zanbil (Persian: چغازنبيل‎; Elamite: Dur Untash) is an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province of Iran. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. It lies approximately 30 km (19 mi) southeast of Susa and 80 km (50 mi) north of Ahvaz. The inner area is wholly taken up with a great ziggurat dedicated to the main god, which was built over an earlier square temple with storage rooms also built by Untash-Napirisha.[5]. It was constructed by the emperor of Elamite. 137–138, 1956, Roman Ghirshman, VIe campagne de fouilles à Tchoga-Zanbil près de Suse (1956–1957), rapport préliminaire, Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, vol. During the Middle Elamite Period, the kings of Anshan and Susa implemented a policy designated “elamization” by modern scholars by which they encouraged the adoption of Elamite beliefs, language, customs, and religion across the region but, especially, in the area of Susiana to the north where Mesopotamian influences had been widely embraced. Ancient History Encyclopedia. From Chogha Zanbil, Iran. Web. 335–345, 1956, Roman Ghirshman, Les fouilles de Tchoga-Zanbil, près de Suse (1956), Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, vol. Even so, Chogha Zanbil is expected to draw visitors to the region again in the future as the site remains one of the most impressive ruins from antiquity, not only in the Near East but in the world. Archaeological finds at the site give evidence that it continued as a pilgrimage site up through 1000 BCE, but the complex was never completed as is made clear by mud bricks still stacked for use in construction and unfinished temples at the site.


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